Chernobyl (Ukrainian Chornobil derived from the plant “Chernobylnik”) – the city of Ivankivsky district of the Kiev region of Ukraine.
Chernobyl is located on the Pripyat River, near its confluence with the Kiev Reservoir.
It is notorious for the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Before the accident in the city lived about 13 thousand people. According to the All-Ukrainian Census of 2001, Chernobyl (like Pripyat) was referred to the cities “without the population”. Currently, less than a thousand people live in the city: employees of institutions and enterprises of the Exclusion Zone and unconditional guaranteed resettlement of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, working on a shift basis, and self-villages. (84 self-residents according to the administration for February 2017). The distance to Kiev in a straight line – 83 km, along the roads – 115 km. Located 12 km south-east of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
History of Chernobyl
The first mention of Chernobyl relates to the events of 1193. Listed in the chronicle “List of Russian cities of distant and near” (the end of the XIV century).
In 1548, when these lands were under the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in the neighborhood of Chernobyl Prince Friedrich Pronsky a castle was built, separated from the settlement by a deep moat that has survived to the present day. In the beginning of the XVII century the castle was reconstructed, turned into a well fortified and inaccessible fortress, and the city of Chernobyl became a district center.
In 1793 he became a member of the Russian Empire. In 1898 the population of Chernobyl was 10,800 people, of which 7,200 were Jews.
The Jews were resettled in Chernobyl by Filon Kmita within the framework of Polish colonization. After joining in 1596 to the Polish kingdom, the traditional Orthodox peasantry was forced to convert to Catholicism. Orthodoxy was restored only after the conquest of the Russian kingdom.
In the second half of the XVIII century Chernobyl became one of the main centers of Hasidism. The Chornobyl Chassidic dynasty was formed by Rabbi Menahem Nahum Tversky.
Until the end of XIX century. Chernobyl was a private city, which belonged to the counts of Chodkevic. In 1896, they sold the city to the state, but until 1910 owned a castle and a house in the city.
The Jewish population was badly affected by the pogroms in October 1905 and March-April 1919, when many Jews were robbed and killed by the Black Hundreds. In 1920 the Tverskoi dynasty left the city and Chernobyl ceased to be an important center of Hasidism.
Construction of the Chernobyl NPP in Chernobyl
During the First World War was occupied. During the Civil War, the city and the county were controlled by the “green” ataman Stru, whom the Reds repeatedly tried to expel, but he invariably returned with the detachment back. During the Soviet-Polish war, Chernobyl was first occupied by the Polish army (in fact, the same Struk, who this time offered his services to Pilsudski), and then repulsed by the cavalry of the Red Army. In 1921, he was included in the Ukrainian SSR. The last Jewish pogrom in the vicinity of the city of Strok was organized in 1922.
The Polish community of Chernobyl was deported to the Kazakhstan Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936 [the source is not specified 2087 days]. Remained in the city after 1919, a small Jewish community was completely destroyed during the Reichskommissariat Ukraine 1941-1944. The day of liberation is November 17, 1943.
In the 1970s, the first nuclear power plant in Ukraine was built 10 km from Chernobyl.
In 1985 the overhead radar “Duga” – the object “Chernobyl-2” was put into operation.
April 26, 1986 at the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant there was an accident, which became the biggest catastrophe in the history of nuclear energy. All the residents of the city were evacuated afterwards, but some later returned to their homes and now live in the contaminated area
The zone of alienation of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant
Chernobyl of 2008
According to the dosimeter, the level of contamination is within normal limits. 2010 year
The railway junction of Chernobyl, 2013
The city of Chernobyl is the administrative center for the management of radiation-hazardous territories alienated in 1986. An extraordinary decision on the alienation of land was caused by significant radioactive contamination of the territories adjacent to the nuclear power plant.
The city is based on the main enterprises engaged in works to maintain the zone in an environmentally safe condition. Including enterprises that control the radiation status of the 30-kilometer exclusion zone-the content of radionuclides in the water of the Pripyat River and its tributaries is controlled, as well as in the air.
The city is based on the personnel of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, which protects the territory of the 30-kilometer zone and controls the illegal penetration of unauthorized persons into its territory
Video “Chernobyl – Pripyat”: